Dodecanese is called the islands, between Samos, Crete and the coast of Asia Minor. The total population of the prefecture of Dodecanese reaches 190,071 inhabitants (census 2001) and has an area of ​​2,579,275 square kilometers. In October 2006, the island's islands and islets in the Dodecanese were totally 27.

The most historic, important and well-known of the Dodecanese is Rhodes, which, for millennia, is the island where the administrative seat of the region is located. Of the rest, Kos and Patmos are historically the most important, while the other nine are Astypalea, Kalymnos, Karpathos, Kasos, Leros, Nisyros, Symi, Tilos and Kastelorizo.

Other major islands of the Dodecanese are Agathonisi, Alimia, Arki, Chalki, Pharmakonisi, Giali, Kinaros, Levitha, Lipsi, Marathos, Nimos, Pserimos, Saria, Stroggili, Syrna and Telendos.